Meet Mark, an ESTJ

police motorcycle in middle of road
Photo by Jimmy Chan on

Note to my family: although I have a brother named Mark, this is NOT him. 

Mark is a jailer.

He is also objective, organized, punctual, practical and more than a little on the blunt side, but after all, he says he works with criminals, so why should he be all cuddles and rainbows?

His wife says he never turns it off and sometimes forgets that the kid on the bike across the street is not a hoodlum, just a kid on a bike. She sometimes thinks he is insensitive to her feelings and the feelings of their children. But then he goes and does something totally sacrificial to provide them with a nicer car or a better school. She knows that he shows his love in practical ways. He has been married to the same woman for twenty years and plans to be with her until they both die. He endured extreme poverty as a child, often going to school hungry and tired (from a lack of sleep due to his parents fighting in the next room) and the early death of his mother when he was eighteen. His father, an alcoholic, abandoned Mark and his three younger siblings.

However, through his fortitude and determination, he went to work at several part-time jobs and earned enough money to keep his siblings together and put them all through high school.

Mark does his best to follow proper protocol. He works out at the gym several times a week and eats healthy. He is fit and trim and an excellent dresser. He always looks sharp in his uniform and even in his lounge clothes.

Mark doesn’t throw things away. He washes them, organizes them and donates them to a facility for the elderly or to the children’s hospital where he knows his hard-earned purchases will be treated with respect and receive a new purpose.

He appreciates people who take pride in the order and cleanliness of their workspace, home and personal appearance.

He doesn’t like long theoretical discussions and wants you to get to the point when speaking to him. If you take too long to respond, he will consider you a “slow thinker.”

He once gave a bike that his son outgrew to a cousin’s child. The next time he went to visit, he saw the bike had been left out in the rain. He has decided not to give that cousin’s child anything else. Another time he gave a coffee pot to his niece. When he went to visit again, he noticed the coffee pot hadn’t been cleaned very well. He decided she wasn’t responsible enough to receive any more gifts from him. He sometimes hurts his wife’s feelings when she is getting dressed to go out because he will say, “That dress makes you look fat. You shouldn’t wear it.”

He disdains fat people and he worries that he might have Jewish ancestry because he read a document detailing all the diseases that Jews can inherit. He has been researching his ancestry feverishly ever since and is concerned because he found a great-great-uncle who died from throat cancer.

He enjoys taking random drives on the weekend along well-established routes and occasionally surprises his wife and kids with a weekend camping trip. Mark isn’t overly emotional and worries that there may be something wrong with his son because he cried at school when other kids accused him of lying. Mark worries that his daughter may be ADHD, even though the doctor said she wasn’t. He’s looked the symptoms up online and he is sure he knows more than the doctor because that doctor is too young to know much anyway.

Sometimes, he hires a babysitter and takes his wife out on the four-wheeler out for a spin, making a day of it and stopping at places that look nice and clean to eat. Mark does things at his own pace and doesn’t like people who slow him down by being late nor does he like to be rushed. Mark’s cognitive presences are those of an ESTJ.

***Mark is only ONE example of the ESTJ type. ESTJs can present themselves in many different ways and each will have their own unique lives and habits, but all ESTJs do have some things in common that are fundamental to the ESTJ cognitive preference.

  1. ESTJs are orderly, punctual, dependable, responsible and practical.
  2. ESTJs are objective and make decisions based on what seems practical. They may not consider your feelings at all when making a choice but will always consider what you think. They care about what you THINK.
  3. ESTJs are safety focused and take comfort responsibly. They don’t want others to make stupid mistakes because they don’t want to have to rescue them from the consequences later on, which is what often happens.
  4. ESTJs know what they value and assume that others value the same thing.
  5. ESTJs want you to think of them as good people. They show love through acts of service and/or gifts. That is why in the example above, Mark was upset by the bike being left in the rain. It was a devaluation of his values.
  6. ESTJs are resilient, hard-workers who want to do the things they have been taught are right.
  7. ESTJs are opinionated and at times, can be a bit elitist.

Meet Tom, an ISTJ

man in black holding phone
Photo by Snapwire on

Tom is an accountant.

He likes his job, because he always knows what is expected of him and he has a set way of accomplishing everything. He feels good when he has an itinerary to follow.

He gets to work every day at 7:05 a.m., exactly twenty-five minutes before he is required to be there. He always leaves home early in case of something unexpected, like a flat tire or icy roads. Every Monday he wears his red tie and every Thursday he wears his gray jacket.

He eats two sausages, one egg and two pieces of toast with a cup of coffee for breakfast every morning and he has done his entire adult life.

He always puts his left shoe on first. At lunch he either goes to the cafeteria across the street or to the fast food place two blocks away. He takes a break at 9 every day and goes to the break room and talks to his friend, Joe, for fifteen minutes. He enjoys talking about UFO sightings, comic books and superhero movies. His co-workers know him for his corny jokes and honest mannerism. Tom is practically incapable of deception or lies.

His boss is talking about retiring and Tom is apprehensive. He has seen the new guy but he is suspicious of him. He thinks this new guy is the type that will change things just to shake people up and that disturbs him. He questions the incoming boss’s intentions and worries that he might be like a pastor he once had who looked similar to him and had similar mannerisms. That pastor embarrassed Tom in front of the entire congregation, so Tom quit going to church. Tom does not like public displays of emotions, especially his own.

When at home, he likes to watch his favorite television shows, sometimes, he even watches reruns of the best episodes. Every night he calls his girlfriend around 7. He also likes a nightly bowl of popcorn and to read for about an hour before he goes to bed. Tom likes to keep things moving forward, doesn’t like sudden plan changes and needs to know what’s next on the agenda. Tom’s cognitive preferences are those of an ISTJ.

***Tom is just one example of the many faces an ISTJ may take. Although no two ISTJs are the same, they all have certain things in common.

  1. They are safety and comfort focused. They prefer the familiar over the changing and unexpected.
  2. They have a systematic way for doing everything and are responsible to do what they should do. They rely on structure and are responsible. If an ISTJ borrows something from you, they will return it in good condition and if you borrow something from them, they expect the same.
  3. They are collectors of information and may accumulate vast libraries on whatever subject they are interested in. They may also collect items, such as comic books, CDs, old records, magazines, etc. Being surrounded by the familiar brings them comfort.
  4. They have a childlike adherence to their personal values and may be unaware of the values of others. They may follow you to the bathroom door dispensing information about something that is important to them, believing that you are also excited about it.
  5. They have a hard time recovering from wrongs done to them and have a hard time understanding why people don’t just do what they say and keep their promises. They like life-long partners and as little change as possible.
  6. They will go outside their comfort zones for those that they love, but will likely complain the entire time they’re doing it.
  7. They fret and worry over the intentions of others.

Meet Kallie, the ISFJ

photo of woman teaching
Photo by nappy on

Kallie’s a kindergarten teacher.

She’s neat.

She’s organized.

She’s punctual.

She dresses conservatively, attractively and responsibly. Her classroom is filled with colorful totes, all labeled and periodically dusted. The totes contain things that she has used in past lessons and may use again in future ones.

She eats lunch with her coworkers and enjoys talking about her children, her husband, her church and her students. She has a shoe collection at home and loves cute shoes and secretly enjoys it when her co-workers comment on how much they like her shoes or her clothes or her hair. She has a quiet demeanor and a soft-spoken gentleness about her yet she will stand up for her family or her students in a heartbeat.

She loves Thanksgiving and Christmas and enjoys reliving special moments from her childhood and the childhood of her children.

Sometimes, she worries about her students at night and prays for them before she goes to sleep. She can be counted on to do things right, to do her job well and to keep accurate records. She wants to do the things that she was taught that she should do in order to be a good person.

She gets nervous when people start changing things without a real explanation as to why they’re changing.  Sudden changes make her uneasy and uncertainties make her feel overwhelmed and nervous. She is aware of how other people feel and of their values. She doesn’t want to hurt people’s feelings unless she has to, but if you mess with her loved ones, or fail to come through on your end of a deal (meaning that after she has done so much for you and not asked anything in return, she expects you to live according to her standards), she may go into panic mode and start talking fast, crying and accusing you of whatever she has imagined you’ve done. Her facebook posts consists of cute pictures of her children doing things, like playing with a pony or feeding the horse or in their adorable Halloween costumes, of her husband (whom she will often praise) and her dog. It’s important to her that she have a great family and that other people think she has a great family.  Other peoples’ feelings and perceptions matter to her, even if their thoughts or personal experiences don’t. She cares more about how you feel than what you think or what you’ve done. Don’t tell her what you think. Tell her how you “feel” and you will reach Kallie’s heart. She is the true embodiment of not caring what you know until she knows that you care.  Kallie’s cognitive preferences are those of an ISFJ.

If Kallie has a dark side it would be that she could become irrational and accuse someone of bad intentions. She could carry this to the extreme, becoming neurotic and lashing out verbally or by doing something out of character for her. She may hold covert contracts and collect on them as a means of manipulation if she feels her version of the ideal relationship or family is slipping. However, Kallie is a stable and mature ISFJ, who has a handle on her shadow functions most of the time.  She is witty, cute, nurturing and inventive. She prides herself in having common sense. Kallie is respected in her community, and even though she often feels alone, is widely liked.

***Keep in mind that the cognitive types are merely blueprints and Kallie is only one representation of millions of variations of the ISFJ type. However, there are certain “Core” elements that all ISFJs share in common. They are:

  1. All ISFJs are safety and comfort focused.
  2. They all compare the present to past similarities and are quick to spot discrepancies.
  3. They are responsible to uphold the values of those within their circle. They care deeply about tradition and time-honored values, about family and legacy. They worry about being good people and don’t want to hurt other people’s feelings (at least not normally.) However, on a negative note, they can care more about the image of a perfect family than they do about the actual people in the family.
  4. They are structured.
  5. They often provide subtext when communicating, leading up to their actual point, or they may simply give your information and let you derive your own “points” from it.
  6. They want to do the the right thing, play by the rules.
  7. They tend to be kind most of the time and aware of how they come across.

Meet the “Could-Be’s”

woman dream portrait happy
Photo by Daria Shevtsova on

NF’s are more often abstract (what could be) than they are concrete (what is). They make decisions more often based on motivation or interest than on a particular system. They are focused on “what is right” but not in the social justice sense of the guardians but in a “what would make the world a more ideal place” kind of way. They are future focused philosophers.



Ego: Fe, Ni, Se, Ti


Fi, Ne, Si, Te



Ego: Ne, Fi, Te, Si


Ni, Fe, Ti, Se



Ego: Ni, Fe, Ti, Se


Ne, Fi, Te, Si



Ego: Fi, Ne, Si, Te


Fe, Ni, Se, Ti





ENFJ in a word: CHAMPIONING—ENFJs are heroes of the people. They need to make a big impact on the world, to build something that will testify to a higher purpose long after they are gone. They have an intuitive and responsible insight about how to do things. For the good, they can be like Martin Luther King, Jr. and initiate a movement that will change the course of a nation. They are natural born leaders with zest and enthusiasm for life and are filled with positive energy. ENFJs are quick, endowed with a great sense of humor and usually bright, emotionally intelligent and have an undaunting determination to accomplish a task or a mission. However, when in a state of negativity, they may imagine all kinds of plans, plots and schemes that others have against them.

ENFP in a word: ENVISIONING—ENFPs have a knack for the new and are often some of the first to hop on-board with new technology. They enjoy novelty and adventure. They have a flare for the dramatic and are often (not always) musically gifted as well. Like the ESFP, they tend to be great entertainers and can be downright hilarious. They also tend to be bright and inspiring. They sometimes have an awkwardness to their movements, like an eternal bounce and their bodily movements often show their emotional state to the degree that you can tell what mood they’re in before you get close enough to hear them speak. ENFPs do tend to fluctuate in mood. They can be compassionate and caring but also have the tendency to come across as flighty and insincere to more traditional types.

INFJ in a word:   FORESIGHT—INFJs foresee a path, lay out the steps and take them. Whatever they set their will upon doing or learning, they accomplish. They like skeletal structure, yet adapt quickly to change. They tend to be non-judgmental and can border on being too-forgiving of the faults of others. At times, this can lead them to feeling under-appreciated. They learn quickly and are often gifted linguistically. It is not uncommon for an INFJ to master several languages. They can also be gifted artistically, and/or musically. Many INFJs have a knack for the sciences or computer programing. Mechanical aptitude and tactical skills may be a struggle for them at times. INFJs tend to be perfectionists and are their own worst critics. They may secretly beat themselves up over minor mis-steps, thinking they have ruined an experience for others. They truly care about what others are experiencing and aspire to create good experiences for everyone. When obstacles get in their way, they create a path around them, through them or over them. They, (along with INTJs) have undaunting will-power. INFJs are strategic and logical, which often causes an internal struggle, because they see what needs to be done, what works, but they also foresee the possible negative internal and external consequences on others and this can be crippling to the point that an INFJ may be unable to move forward even though they are always needing to move forward.

INFP in a word: MORALITY—INFPs are guided by an unerring system of self-knowledge. They may not always KNOW why they see things a certain way but they know when something crosses their values, when something makes them feel “off.” They are certain of how they feel about things and of what they stand for on certain issues. They are quick to decide if something is “for them” or not. And they remain true to their sense of self. INFPs can see a myriad of possibilities and when faced with a crisis, they can often see more than one way out. This same trait leads them to be quietly creative. INFPs may be artists, writers, musicians or scientists. They may be professors or librarians or bookstore owners. They are collectors of data and have an off-beat system of organization that may not work for others, but it works for them and they can walk into what looks like a total chaotic environment of books, papers, years of photo boxes, Christmas ornaments (or whatever else they’ve been keeping for years) and find whatever it is they’re looking for. INFPs tend to be physically awkward and often find themselves with bruises at the end of any given day. When very upset, angry or stressed, the INFP may surprise you with a string of syllables that you would never have imagined could come out of their mouth!

Meet the “What Ifs”

boy child clouds kid
Photo by Porapak Apichodilok on

NTs live in their heads and in their systems. They are often systematic. They are future-focused and deal more often in “what-if” than in “what is.”  They are more focused on “what works” than on “what is the accepted way of doing things” (pragmatic).



Ego:  Te Ni Se Fi


Ti, Ne, Si, Fe




Ego: Ne Ti Fe Si


Ni, Te, Fe, Si




Ego: Ni Te Fi Se


Ne, Ti, Fe, Si




Ego: Ti Ne Si Fe


Te, Ni, Se, Fi



ENTJ in a word: COMMANDING-ENTJs seem so serious and business like on the surface. They are structured, systematic, directive, intuitive (more in tune with What if than What is) and do things at their own pace. They seek to do the right thing as it is measured by external standards of the system of which they are a part. They need to be comfortable and to know that you value them and to those they care for, they don’t want to seem heartless. They may come across as blunt, curt, harsh and bossy, but the truth is that they really don’t want to give you a bad experience. They merely want you to competent and do your job right and for those they love, they want to give a good life experience with a childlike fervor.

ENTP in a word: IMPROVING—ENTPs are abstract thinkers who look for the “big picture” and seek to understand the core of any system, situation or motivation. They are also looking for a systematic way to make things better. They need things to be constantly progressing toward “better” whether it’s a system, a person or a relationship. They are constantly pushing for improvement. As a result of this many of the world’s finest inventions have been brought about by ENTPs. They deal in “what if” more often than “what is.” ENTPs need to have great experiences in life. They need to feel like they’ve truly “lived” not merely existed. They are often accused of being deceptive but it is only because their pragmatic thinking sometimes flies in the face of the traditional so they learn to be selective with whom they share their truths and observations.

INTJ in a word: STRATEGIZING—INTJs are abstract, systematic, direct and always moving toward building a system, designing a plan, plotting an outcome, finding the best way. They are more concerned about what gets results than what’s traditional, expected or socially popular. INTJs tend toward objectivity and when mature can be one of the “fairest” of all types, meaning that they are less likely to play favorites in order to gain social popularity and in truth, they may even be somewhat oblivious to certain social norms. However, they are gifted in whatever area they find an interest and can always plot a course for the future. Like the ISTJ, INTJs have a childlike adherence to their own values and will not violate their own core beliefs.

INTP in a word: CONCEPTUALIZING–INTPs live in a world of internal frameworks and future possibilities. They have the uncanny ability to immediately see a concept and determine its legitimacy, to determine if it is true or false, logical or illogical. They understand how theoretical components fit together and can see multitudes of possibilities, both positive and negative, for the use of that understanding. They have a pure and positive ability to collect past data and see where and how it fits in to current data. They aspire to consider the values of others and to make others feel good. It makes them happy to know that they made you feel good and it hurts them when their actions have made you feel bad or angry. For this reason, they sometimes are “frozen” in their choices, fearing that no matter what they do, they might “mess up” socially.









Meet the “Free Spirits” (SPs)

man riding white surfboard
Photo by Oliver Sjöström on

SPs do what works, pragmatic.  They deal in “what is” more often than in “what if.” They like to test the rules, push the boundaries, live in the moment and have an aptitude for mechanical, tactical or physical type things. They have a sensual bent and sometimes come across as daredevils. They don’t usually like restrictions, detailed itineraries and rules that impede their adventure and creativity. They are artists, craftsmen, technicians and tacticians, regardless of what their occupational title actually is.


Ego: Se, Ti, Fe, Ni


Si, Te, Fi, Ne



Ego: Se, Fi, Te, Ni


Si, Fe, Ti, Ne



Ego:  Ti, Se, Ni, Fe


Te, Si, Ne, Fi



Ego: Fi, Se, Ni, Te


Fe, Si, Ne, Ti



ESTPs in a word: PRAGMATIC. ESTPs are directive in their communication. They give orders but don’t enjoy taking them. They are great at starting things but lag behind when it comes to getting them finished. They move at their own pace and don’t appreciate being rushed. They take their time and do things their own way. They live in the here and now more often than not. They are pragmatic, wanting to do what works above what’s always been done. They like to give those around them a great and memorable experience. They need to be given freedom to make their own choices and the time in which to do them. Understanding which direction they really want to go in their great weakness and they need patience from others in regards to that weakness.  They are motivated by interested more often than external systems.

ESFPs in a word: ENTERTAINING. ESFPs are informative in their communication which means there is a lot of subtext. They want to inform you and leave the decision of what to do up to you, much in the same way that ISFJs and ESFJs do, except there is no “should” attached to the information you’re receiving. ESFPs are spontaneous and funny and fun-loving. They are creative and aware of “what is” more often than “what if.” Like all Artisans, they will test the rules, push the boundaries. They make decisions based more on their interests or personal motivations than they do on an accepted system. Like the ESTP, they need the freedom to choose.

ISTP in a word: SURVIVAL.ISTPs need to know that they are valued for their expertise in an area. If ISTP is a musician then he wants to be acknowledged for his incredible skill which he may have spent untold hours perfecting. He is in the moment, logical, analytical, concrete (what is) and relaxed. He is movement oriented and likes to keep things going. He doesn’t like to stall or piddle. He is the ultimate tactician and survivalist with uncanny mechanical and physical aptitude. ISTPs are direct in their communication, not using anymore words than necessary (the silent grunters). They sometimes lack patience with others who don’t learn as fast as they do and may label highly intelligent people as stupid if the other person doesn’t catch on to a concept as quickly as they do. They live in the moment, are extremely aware of their physical environment and are highly analytical.

ISFP in a word: FREE-SPIRITED. ISFPs go at their own pace, make decisions based on their own interests and wait for you to make the first move. They are pragmatic and you can bet they will do what they want to do when all is said and done. They are quietly stubborn and have a hard time getting their ideas across sometimes. However, they are usually excellent at mechanical and physical things, just as the ISTP is. They need to be valued for their input and not to be written off because they struggle to get it across to you. They are more intelligent than most people realize. They are often gifted with an aptitude for art and music and many of the world’s famous artists and musicians have been ISFPs. They may also struggle with anger outbursts and tend to live on the edge at times.

Meet the Shoulds

Continuing with the 16 Sets of Cognitive Blueprints

family having meal at the table
Photo by cottonbro on


SJs come in four basic blueprints. They are keepers of tradition, deal in “what has always been” more often than “what if”. They are more likely to adhere to a system most of the time (systematic) but occasionally can be pragmatic. They play by the rules and what to do what is lawful. They do what they SHOULD do and expect you to do the same. They tell lots of stories of the way things used to be and are very aware of their physical bodies. They are safety-focused and may talk a lot about their health. They NEED things to be planned and organized. An itinerary, color-coded binders, closet organizers, filing cabinets, clocks, calendars and sticky notes are their best friends.


Ego: Te, Si, Ne, Fi


Ti, Se, Ni, Fe


Ego: Si, Te, Fi, Ne


Se, Ti, Fe, Ni


Ego: Fe, Si, Ne, Ti


Fi, Se, Ni, Te


Ego: Si, Fe, Ti, Ne


Se, Fi, Te, Ni

ESTJs in a word: ORDER. They are orderly, objective, lawful, keepers of tradition, often blunt go-getters who start things and move at their own pace. They are directive when they speak more often than they are informative and even when they are informative, they sound directive. They are often seen as unyielding and “by-the-book” but there is far more to them than that. They need to know you appreciate their hard work and see them as compassionate people, because understanding other people’s values is their greatest area of struggle. Their decisions are often based on the “system” of which they are a part.

ISTJs  in a word: SAFE. ISTJs are safety-conscious keepers of tradition with a penchant for details and sometimes, conspiracy theories who like to see things get done (they may not be the ones doing them but they will dutifully and systematically remind the “doers” until the thing is accomplished.) They are orderly collectors of information and knowledge. They are systematic and direct in their communication. They appreciate being told what they should do and they like to have a precise order to do it in. ISTJs are inventive in practical ways and can come up with mechanical inventions that make life more comfortable and easier. They need to know your intentions and that you want to be with them, because feeling afraid of other people’s intentions and feeling unwanted are their greatest struggles.Their intuition works to  make them suspicious and causes them to imagine what others might be doing or intending to do.

ESFJs in a word: SUPPORTIVE. ESFJs are duty-conscious, self-sacrificing, caring, hard-working traditionalists who go the extra mile to help those in their circle of influence. They are informative in their speech, aware of what’s accepted in their culture and live by their “shoulds” doing what they “should” do. They need you to listen to their ideas and assure them that you find them useful and intelligent because they doubt their own intelligence and when you don’t listen to them you reinforce their doubts. They need to know that you value them enough to listen to their ideas. They make excellent community leaders and event organizers.

ISFJs in a word: PLANNING. ISFJs need to be safe and comfortable. They dislike the unfamiliar and being in situations where they don’t know the intentions of others or where there is an element of danger.  Like the ESFJ, they are informative in their speech. ISFJs are masters at dropping “hints” which they expect you to pick up on and act accordingly to what you “should” do. They are usually neat, tidy and organized. Trust an ISFJ to plan your family vacation and pack snacks for everyone. They may fix your hair or pick lent off your clothing. Tradition is everything to them; it provides them with the comfortable, predictable and familiar. They are all about what they “should” do and about feeling safe. ISFJs are behind-the-scenes kind of people and don’t enjoy being put in the public spotlight. This is often uncomfortable for them. They need to know your intentions. They make excellent managers and come up with wonderful inventions for use in their work environment and in their homes. Their intuition works to  make them suspicious and causes them to imagine what others might be doing or intending to do.



16 Types: Part III

architect architecture artist blur
Photo by Pixabay on

Below I give a brief overview of the four basic temperaments, according the categories in my previous post..

Then I follow with examples of people from each temperament category. Finally, I break the types down and give a very brief description of each. I put the negative possibilities in italics. I will return soon to post all of the types in more detail. Right now, I simply want to familiarize people who haven’t heard of these cognitive preferences before with them.

I am endeavoring to simplify to the point that anyone can understand, but an ISFJ friend did recently warn me, “Some people won’t understand it, no matter what you do, because some people can’t understand it.” Maybe she’s right. I don’t know. But, it’s not for a lack of trying on my part.

SJs have Sensing Introverted in their top four functions which makes them past-focused and comfort-seeking.  This means they may be apprehensive about changes and need a tether to the past to be comfortable going into the future. Stability and focus matter to them.

Conscientiousness George Washington, Martha Stewart, Billy Graham, Jerry Falwell, Oral Roberts,  Tom Clancy, Woodrow Wilson, Colin Powell, Harry Truman, Sam Walton, Apostle Paul

Funny Fiction Character: Monica from Friends

SPs have Sensing Extraverted in their top four functions which makes them concerned about and in-tune with their present physical environment and the experiences that are going on around them. Exploration, self-expression and independence matter to them.


Survivalism–Bruce Lee, Frank Zappa, Clint Eastwood, Jim Morrison, Janice Joplin, Jimmy Hendrix, Tom Cruise, Christian Bale, Orlando Bloom


Funny Fiction Character:

Joey and Rachel from Friends


NTs have either Thinking (Extraverted or Introverted) in their top four functions, so they will all either rely heavily upon reason or upon logic. They value independence, theories, experiments and exploration.


Innovation–Einstein, C.S. Lewis, Hawking, Benjamin Franklin, Ayn Rand, Tesla, DiVinci, Darwin, Carl Sagan, Napoleon


Funny Fiction Character: Brain, from Pinky and the Brain



NFs have Feeling (Extraverted or Introverted) in their top four functions which means that they all are either concerned with the values and directions of the human race at larger or with their own internal values and personal growth.





Existentialism–Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr., Tolkien, Agatha Christie, George Orwell, Van Gogh, William Blake, Tom Selleck, Hitler, Jesus



Funny Fiction Character:

Phoebe from Friends


ESTJ–Efficient, organized, strong, determined–blunt, stubborn, elitist, rude, intimidating

*aptitude for leading/government/law enforcement

ISTJ–conscientious, loyal, honest, dependable, knowledgable–fretful, suspicious, comfort-seeking, insecure, lazy, hopeless (lose all hope for future)

*aptitude for keeping records/science/law enforcement/research

ESFJ–dependable, organized, self-sacrificing, funny, warm, family-oriented–overbearing, guilting, manipulative, covert contract holders, socially destructive

*aptitude for nursing/social work/counseling/elementary education

ISFJ–kind, nurturing, family-oriented, innovative, dependable–neurotic, lonely, fretful, comfort-seeking, guilt-inducing, victims of abuse

*aptitude for nursing/ data tracking/elementary-education/some fields of science

ESTP–Practical, pragmatic, resourceful, analytical, mechanically inclined, trouble-shooter–rude, abusive, critical, harsh, stubborn, tunnel vision, short-sighted

*aptitude for foreman/construction/heavy machine operators/building contractors

ISTP–physically attuned, analytical, practical, tactical, mechanically inclined, quick to catch on, self-sufficient–short-sighted, harsh, critical, arrogant

*aptitude for machines/electronics/some fields of science/tactician

ESFP–fun, loving, inventive, creative, physically attuned, good-natured–selfish, undisciplined, disorganized, narcissistic, lazy

*aptitude for entertainment/partyplanning/cooking/ fashion/teaching in some settings

ISFP–creative, charming, talented, physical aptitude, mechanic aptitude, easy-going, adaptable–self-absorbed, undisciplined, anger issues, narcissistic 

*aptitude for music/art/woodworking/machines/anything physical and creative

ENTPs–open, charming, caring, witty, innovative, independent, self-sufficient, analytical, ingenious–succumb to Stockholm syndrome, narcissistic, overly nit-picky over how things are phrased, presented  etc., critical

*aptitude for research/applied and theoretical sciences/inventing/ poetry/comedy

INTPs–innovative, analytical, peaceful, open mentally–insecure, lazy, failure to launch, childish emotions.

*aptitude for computers/sciences/think tanks

ENTJs–enormous sense for business, dedicated, hard-working, smart, witty, determined–harsh, abusive, judgmental, cruel, unaware of how words and actions affect others, unrealistic demands of loyalty.

*aptitude for business of any kind/overseers/commanders/officers

INTJ–Focused, determined,  original, rational, independent, strategic, pragmatic, self-sufficient, observant–oblivious to other’s feelings, suspicious, unrealistic demands of loyalty. 

*aptitude for science/research/computers/medicine/anything that requires strategic planning

ENFJ–altruistic, caring, merciful, kind, see the “big picture,” organized, planned, enthusiastic, positive, unwavering, determined–unrealistic visions of the future (live in a dream world at times), master manipulators, con-artists

*aptitude for performing arts/public speaking/missionary work/teaching

INFJ–strategic, focused, analytical, observant, non-judgmental, creative, linguistic aptitude, generous, kind, highly productive, determined–unemotional, manipulative, cold, calculative, obsessive, physically destructive

*aptitude for languages/writing/art/sciences/medicine/research/teaching (especially in a university setting)


ENFP–fun, innovative, creative, open, entertaining–fickle, selfish, moody, overly dramatic

INFP–creative, unique, observant, loyal, kind, generous, detail-focused–hoarders, lonely, misunderstood, self-pity, depressive, 

*aptitude for literature, music, art, some sciences, editing

1.     Traditional

2.     Do what they “should” do, what is “right.”

3.     Past-focused

1.     Non-conforming

2.     Do what “works.”

3.     Present-focused

1.     Non-traditional

2.     Do what “works.”

3.     Future-focused.

1.     Idealistic

2.     Do what is “right.”

3.     Future-focused



My Easy “W” chart! (16 Blueprints: Part II)

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Before I continue on with the 16 type introductions and fictitious examples, someone suggested that I make a basic chart, so I did that. I know there are tons of such charts on the internet, but I just quickly threw this simplistic one together and gave each group a “W” name that I thought was interesting, catching and positive. I want to emphasize that there is NO BEST TYPE and there is NO WORST TYPE.

SJs–Watchmen SPs–Warriors NTs–Wizards NFs—Wisdom Keepers
1.     Traditional

2.     Do what they “should” do, what is “right.”

3.     Past-focused

1.     Non-conforming

2.     Do what “works.”

3.     Present-focused

1.     Non-traditional

2.     Do what “works.”

3.     Future-focused.

1.     Idealistic

2.     Do what is “right.”

3.     Future-focused


16 Blueprints: Part I, The Basics

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So, let’s start with the notion that human beings are born (for the most part) with the capacity to learn and grow. In order to do that we must take in information about our world and then we must utilize that information in our day to day lives, communication and interactions with others, with nature, with the physical world, with concepts, with spirituality and so forth.

We call the ways of taking in and utilizing information cognitive preferences. In the same way that most people have a preference for handedness (right or left) people have a preference for the order of their cognitive functions.

The way we take in information is called our perceiving function. The manner in which we utilize or act upon that information is called our judging function.

Think of it this way:

Perceiving = in-put.

Judging = out-put.

There are two categories for perceiving functions: Intuition and Sensing and two categories for judging functions which are called Thinking and Feeling. Now, intuition can be either introverted or extroverted. In psychology circles this is abbreviated as Ni (intuition introverted) and Ne (intuition extraverted). Sensing is also either introverted (Si) or extraverted (Se).  Thinking is also introverted (Ti) and extraverted (Te) as is feeling, Fi and Fe. I will use these standard abbreviations throughout my posts.

Let me take a moment to give a brief description of these functions.

Se–is attuned to the physical world and is concerned with what is happening outside of one’s self (it is extraverted…outward focused). Se is concerned with what others are doing and with the experiences others are having, their comfort, their safety, whether or not they are enjoying the moment. It is present-focused and in the moment. 

Si–is attuned with the past and the experiences one has already had. It compares present experiences or possible future experiences to past experiences and is inward-focused. Si is concerned with one’s own comfort and safety. 

Ne–is attuned to possibilities outside of one’s self. It looks outward and at multiple combinations, connections and outcomes of any system or situation. It tinkers with ideas and theories, always seeking to find another way.  It is experimenting and  future-focused, asking “what can be?” 

Ni–is attuned to finding what is the “best” or most efficient outcome. It looks inward and is concerned with “what will be.” Ni connects invisible dots and sees patterns and pathways to infinite numbers of outcomes pertaining to one’s own path forward. It is strategic and future-focused. 

Te–is outward focused on external frameworks. It is objective and adheres to proven structures to support its conclusions and in order to form conclusions. It looks to the experts and to foundations that have already been laid. It seeks to find the most practical way to accomplish objective tasks.  It basically asks, “how to do it?”

Ti–analyzes and dissects, seeks to understand how something works and why something is.  Ti is inward-focused on one’s internal framework and understanding of structures. It questions the purpose and meaning of everything. It takes apart in order to put together, synthesizes. 

Fe–is concerned with values of others. It understands the cultural and social values of any group that it is put into and forms an ability to adapt to those values.

Fi–is concerned with one’s internal values and seeks to be true to one’s self.  

 We all have all the functions but the order of dominance and development is different. The placement of a cognitive function determines how it plays out in each of us. There are sixteen different orders in which these functions can be arranged. The J or P on the end of each set of  cognitive preferences denotes which preference a person extraverts. It doesn’t mean whether or not they are judgmental as I have heard some say. I am showing the sixteen different orders below. The ones in bold are the functions that we are most adept at using. The ones in italics are our weaker, more *”mirror universe” functions.  You may notice that the functions always appear on an axis, which means they are aways paired opposite of each other. The axis are as follows:

Se & Ni; Si & Ne; Te & Fi; Fe & Ti

The four letters after each arrangement or line-up of functions are what we call our Type Code.

  1. Se Ti Fe Ni Si Te Fi Ne =ESTP
  2. Ti Se Ni Fe Te Si Ne Fi = ISTP
  3. Se Fi Te Ni Si Fe Ti Ne= ESFP
  4. Fi Se Ni Te Fe Si Ne Ti= ISFP
  5. Ne Fi Te Si Ni Fe Ti Se= ENFP
  6. Fi Ne Si Te Fe Ni Se Ti= INFP
  7. Ne Ti Fe Si Ni Te Fi Se= ENTP
  8. Ti Ne Si Fe Te Ni Se Fi= INTP
  9. Te Ni Se Fi Ti Ne Si Fe= ENTJ
  10. Ni Te Fi Se Ne Ti Fe Si= INTJ
  11. Fe Ni Se Ti Fi Ne Si Te= ENFJ
  12. Ni Fe Ti Se Ne Fi Te Si =INFJ
  13. Te Si Ne Fi Te Se Ni Fe= ESTJ
  14. Si Fe Ti Ne Se Fi Te Ni= ISFJ
  15. Fe Si Ne Ti Fi Se Ni Te= ESFJ
  16. Si Te Fi Ne Se Ti Fe Ni= ISTJ

And here’s how the order affects our functions and our lives:

Our Strength Functions:

  1. Our Hero Function–our “go to” way of being, the mode of operation when we are allowed to be our most authentic selves. This function is where our optimism lies, our confidence.
  2. Our Parent Function–the function we kick into when we’re trying to be responsible. This function is where we go when we think about consequences and safety. It’s a more pessimistic function because it’s always on guard for pitfalls and dangers.
  3. Our Child Function–our purest function; This function is where we play and enjoy ourselves. It’s optimistic and usually like the child in the “Emperor’s New Clothes.” It’s the function that simply sees what is there.
  4. Our Aspirational Function–this function is the one where we feel the least confident and we may aspire to work harder when using this function, but if forced into it continuously, we may burn out. However, when an individual is not under stress and allowed to “just be” this function can offer a change of pace and an outlet.  
  5. Our Nemesis Function–it’s the function that casts doubt on our Hero.
  6. Our Critic Function–it’s the inner voice of criticism
  7. Our Trickster Function–it’s our delusions function. It’s the one that lies to us about ourselves.
  8. Our Demon Function–Just as our number four function is the one that spurs us to aspire, this one is accessed when we have lost all hope or feel lost in the world.







My Journey to Realms of Depth Psychology

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Depth psychology looks at the cognitive blueprints (natural tendencies) that frame a person’s basic perceiving and decision-making processes. These blueprints are the foundation which our personalities are built upon. They are shaped by character, environment, faith and culture, making every person totally unique. I believe that understanding these blueprints can make us better communicators and help us understand others better. As a teacher and a parent, I think that learning our children’s basic blueprints will help us do a better job in guiding them in the way they should go as they grow.

I am, at the core, basing my ideas in this post on the works of John Beebe, Dario Nardi, Linda Berens, Vicky Jo Varner (whom I took an online course under when I won it in a competition on a typology forum), Mike Boudria, C.S. Joseph, Cynthia Tobias, Howard Gardner, Anna Barsova and Tim LaHaye, all who have, in one way or another, influenced my thinking on this subject.

PHASE I: Teacher Test

I was an eighteen-year-old artist who was recovering from bulimia and I had been accepted into college. I wanted to be a teacher. I wanted to make a difference in the lives of others, to sow seeds of kindness, joy, hope and love. In my freshman orientation class they plopped a “test” down in front of me to help me identify my “calling” in life. The results would give me a bunch of letters like I, F, S, P and so forth. They told me these letters would be arranged in one of sixteen ways. So, I read the questions and answered them based on what I thought it took to be a “good” teacher.

My call letters turned out to be an ENFJ. All that mattered to me about that result was that it had the word “teacher” listed under the recommended occupations.  A few months before, all that would have mattered was the word “artist.” But I had decided, at the urging of one of my own teachers, that I would make a better living as a teacher. I watched Anne of Green Gables and Little House on the Prairie and Christy and read Jesse Stuart’s, A Thread that Runs so True and I wanted to be one of these heroic people that made a difference in the life of a child, that changed someone’s future for the better, so I answered as if I was Anne Shirley herself.

By the time I graduated there were no teaching jobs in my area so I went to work in a hospital as an X-ray clerk. My favorite moments were the ones I spent alone, quietly working at my desk, developing film in the darkroom (yes, it’s been a while.) Co-workers said I was a ray of sunshine and patients loved my quiet mannerism and gentle nature. Of course, everyone loved my humor that was quirky and innocent. I mean I was still very young.

Then came the day that I finally got that teaching job and I was off and running. Little did I know that my personality wasn’t a typical elementary teacher’s personality. In fact, I would be reprimanded for “being too timid” on more than one occasion, until the day I realized that what others mistook for timidity was simply my preference for being calm. It was during these early years as a teacher that I was sent to Dayton, Ohio, to a teacher’s convention that would lead me to seek to not only understand myself, but everyone around me.

PHASE II: Temperament Tantrums

I attended that convention in Dayton where a gregarious and bouncy blonde public speaker introduced me to the concept of temperaments. The lady gave us a paper test with columns where we could read statements and rate them from “most like me” to “least like me.” We were all supposed to discover our primary and secondary temperaments. Of course, I had a tie. I mean, I would be the only person in the room who tied on all four temperaments, so I went to her to help me break the tie and “learn about myself.” She took a look at me. I was wearing a white sweater with a teddy bear on it and a pair dark-washed-jean. She said, “Oh, you’re a Sanguine. I can tell by your clothing. Only a Sanguine would wear that sweater.”

I was miffed. How could she tell by my clothing? That was silly. I stewed about it all the way home. I then started buying books on the Four-Temperament theories and it didn’t take me more than a chapter to realize that the lady had read my teddy bear sweater all wrong. So, I decided to order myself the genuine Tim LaHaye Temperament Analysis. I was so excited to receive my manila envelope in the mail and took great pains to read and re-read every question on the test. I said a prayer that I would answer honestly and truly tried to step outside myself and analyze myself.  I knew there was something to the idea that we all come into this world wired differently and any two people facing the same situation will react differently. I wanted to understand my “human” nature, my initial blueprint. I wanted to know what made ME tick. I didn’t think the idea was wrong or that it had no validity. I DID think the presenter was too quick to form an opinion.

I took the test, sent my answers in and waited about a month to receive my results: Melancholy Phlegmatic—a creative introvert who loved peace and harmony, who internalized things and was reluctant to ask others for help, who had trouble saying “no” to others, who was highly gifted and slightly messy. Yes. That was me. As it turned out, my report went on to say that I was not extremely introverted but I definitely was not an extrovert, not a Sanguine. So, Melancholies and Phlegmatics COULD wear teddy bears on their sweaters! All joking aside, this basic understanding DID help me understand myself and somehow it helped me to stop being so hard on myself. More years would pass before I started to go beyond the Four Temperaments of Hippocrates.

PHASE III: Depth Psychology and Jungian Cognitive Preferences

Somewhere along the journey I began writing novels and my desire to learn more about human nature sky-rocketed. I didn’t know what I was looking for. I only knew that I couldn’t stop looking. I used my temperament knowledge to write the characters in my first few books.

Many years after the ENFJ test at college and long after the Temperament phase, I was assisting two people with their undergrad homework, a man and a woman. They were taking a test called the MBTI. I recognized it as the same one I had taken in college. So, we took it, all three of us together. The man came out as ISTJ. The woman came out as ISFJ and I came out as INFJ. So, together, we sat down and looked up our call letters and read the descriptions.

His fit him—perfectly. Hers fit her—perfectly. And mine fit me—well, beautifully.  My ENFJ was gone, because it was never there in the first place. This time, I was already a teacher and had been for over ten years. I didn’t need to answer like what I thought would be the “ideal” teacher. I just answered true to myself. This revelation led me to interacting with others online, to joining a forum and buying books by the authors listed above. I wanted to understand the Love Languages, Multiple Intelligences and more than anything, Depth Psychology.

By this time, I had several published novels under my belt and I realized that going beyond temperament, beyond the basic Myers-Briggs test and really understanding the idea of cognitive functions, allowed me to write characters with emotional depth, three-dimensional characters. It also caused me to differentiate with my students and to realize why I had so much more trouble with some students, parents and co-workers than others. We were speaking entirely different languages! We had completely different values.

PHASE IV: Sharing a Passion

I do not believe that we can be pigeon-holed and each person in the world is a unique snowflake of sorts, yet, we DO all come into this world with different natural tendencies, blueprints. However, the house that is built upon any single set of blueprints can be vastly different from every other house that is built upon those blueprints. In the same way that paint choices, flooring choices, furniture choices, window dressing choices, appliances, etc. can make a thousand houses built from the same blueprints different, so can our environment, education, faith, life experiences, and so forth can make any two people with the same personality blueprints different.

It is my hope to delve into the sixteen types in the next few posts and hopefully, those of you who are interested will find something of value. I also have started doing youtube videos on Depth Psychology, not because I’m an expert by any stretch of the imagination, but merely because I love the subject and I have a profound need to learn and to share.