Meet Willow, an INFJ

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The cognitive preferences of INFJs are:

Ni-introverted intuition in the hero position is perspective-shifting in that it is constantly at work on a subconscious level, sorting through information that comes in via the five senses or some unconscious means, giving the INFJ (INTJs, too), the ability to see things from many different angles and viewpoints at once. Ni is the NJs’ superpower, giving them insight into relationships, imagination, originality, ingenuity and visions of what not only could be but the road to take to get there.

Fe-feeling that’s extraverted in the parent position is where the INFJ’s responsibility lies. Whenever INFJs experience the sensation that the values of others are being violated, this function steps in and reminds them that they have a responsibility to the well-being and happiness of others. Fe is aware of what matters to others and how others feel. Coupled with a hero Ni, this means that INFJ is always subjected to having to balance what they see as best and what they want (Ni) with the consequential effects on others.

Ti-in the child position means that the INFJ has a form of pure logic, that when unhampered by interfering Fe, and in service to heroic Ni, can devise a plan to accomplish, basically anything in a step-by-step manner. It also means that INFJs may get so focused on what they think that they fail to listen to the advice or thoughts of others.

Se-extraverted sensing in the aspirational position may mean that INFJs worry about giving others a bad experience or doing something that cause physical harm to others. Yet, on a positive note, it serves as a release valve for the mental energy consumed by massive use of Ni and Ti. When young, INFJs may be so distracted by the never ceasing noise in their heads that they forget where they’re going or walk into something but as they move out of adolescence, they may become physically involved with any number of sports or physical activities.

Meet Willow, an INFJ

Willow is a writer. She takes long walks. She needs time to think. Time to hear her “own heart.”

Thinking helps her determine what she is feeling and why she feels that way. Thinking helps her make sense of her world.  She is strategic in almost everything she does and tends to see patterns on a subconscious level. She also understands many things without ever having officially learned them and may not be able to recall how she knows them.

Willow has a keen sense of personal direction and is led by something that can only be likened to an internal guidance system.  She can’t explain it no matter how hard she tries. She hates being asked personal questions, and she hates having to explain her past or why she chooses certain things. Her greatest personal intention is to live with integrity and authenticity. She constantly struggles with what she sees as the right path for her own life and what others want and expect from her.

Willow has an undaunting and tenacious will power and even when emotionally distraught, or physically in pain, she will press forward on behalf of something she values and believes in, especially if the well-being of another is involved. She has been known to literally lay her life on the line for the sake of others.

Willow has a beautiful sense of humor and can make people laugh at the drop of a pin. Wherever she goes, people flock to her. They say she is like a light entering the room and makes others feel good about themselves when she is with them. Friends say that Willow is inspiring and they feel connected to her. Willow feels good when she makes others feel good, however, she often feels drained, like people have some sort of invisible energy IV hooked to her, trying to siphon off her life energy. Even when she tries to be alone, people find her.

Friends and family will often ask her to do things she doesn’t really believe in or want to do, yet she has an incredibly hard time saying no and wrestles daily with requests from other people.  She constantly feels torn between being true to herself and maintaining harmony with others. Willow’s greatest fears are that she will irreparably damage another person by following her own passions and she is very passionate internally while remaining calm on the surface most of the time.

With a high IQ the ability to speak multiple languages, paint, dance, sing, write and learn anything she sets her mind to, Willow is gifted, yet has struggled with her self-worth many times, feeling that it is somehow her responsibility to make everyone happy, to fix their problems and take away their pain without judging them for anything they did or didn’t do to cause that pain in the first place. Her best friend tells her that she has unreasonable expectations of herself and is too hard on herself, while letting other people get off easy.

She struggles with mechanical aptitude and her family laughed at her struggle to learn to drive. She struggles with Si dominate skills like keeping up with binders, folders, data etc. Willow feels this stuff is pointless. She can keep up with stuff in her head. Why does she need all that clutter in her physical world? Clutter and conflict make her physically ill. She really just wants to be left alone and allowed to work in her own way most of the time.

That’s not to say she doesn’t like structure, she does, somewhat. It just needs to be a lose structure with room for spurts of creativity. She dreams of travel and adventure and writes historical fiction with intricate characters, twisting plots and many subplots. Willow is highly observant of human interactions and intuitively understands unspoken motives. She bases her interactions with others on what she picks up off them, not what they show on the surface.

The ”mundane” things of life are a weight around her neck. She longs for escape from the ordinary day in and day out routines of life, and often finds it through her fantastic imagination.

She is always prioritizing. Above all things, Willow wants to leave behind something that makes the world a more enlightened place. She wants to help open the spiritual eyes of others and feels this is her highest call in life. That is why she writes, to communicate a truth that is bigger and far more reaching than her immediate circle. She wants to leave a legacy of what it means to live for something bigger than one’s immediate needs.

Willow has the cognitive preferences of an INFJ and while not all INFJs are the same, they do all share some characteristics:

  1. INFJs know things without knowing how they know them.
  2. INFJs see many angles at the same time.
  3. INFJs feel responsible for the experiences and feelings of others.
  4. INFJs have a pure logic with the ability to analyze and synthesis on a subconscious level.
  5. INFJs need a loose but dependable structure.
  6. INFJs are strategic yet they are movement oriented (they get bored with stagnation and seek adventure.)
  7. INFJs are creative.

Meet Tony, an ENFJ


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The cognitive preferences of ENFJs are:

Fe–in the hero position means that they are heroically aware of the values and feelings of others. It’s the first thing they pick up when in any environment. It’s their superpower.

Ni–in the parent position means that they are responsible for their purpose, goal, intent and desire. Ni in this position, coupled with Fe in the hero position, positions ENFJs to be the world’s best con-artists, ministers, public speakers and entertainers. (realize that any type can enter any field or occupation but ENFJs are gifted in these areas.)

Se-in the child position means that ENFJs sincerely want others to have a good experience, to be comfortable. It also means they have a childlike need to be in the moment which further serves to make them great entertainers, etc. It causes others to automatically feel at ease in their presence.

Ti-is in their aspirational position and this means that they aspire to really analyze and understand things. It also means that they may not always listen to reason and when upset can become irrational, accusing others of thinking things they have no proof of.

Tony is empathetic, compassionate and sincerely kind. He is soulful and sensitive and has such an intense need to mentor and nurture that he volunteers to take a missionary trip to a particular village in Haiti every year just before Christmas where he will deliver books, crayons, pencils and other items to children. He does puppet skits for them and tells them Bible stories. These trips are the highlight of Tony’s life. He feels it is his purpose in life to bring hope to Haiti. He saves his money all year for the trip. He works craft festivals all summer, selling various items he has made in order to fund his trip. He set up a “go fund me” page and gets a few pledges there, but nowhere near enough. So, Tony makes the sacrifices himself in order to accomplish what he believes in and what he believes in is helping the children of Haiti. He wants to make a mark in that country.

Tony has been married two times. The first wife said his personality was too strong and that he was too devoted to his goals. She said she couldn’t compete with “the poor children of Haiti,” and she left. His second wife became jealous of Tony after a performance of the Lion King at a local theatre. She wasn’t jealous of Tony and another woman. She was jealous of all the attention and adoration he was getting. She felt threatened. Now, single with no children, Tony prays that one day a woman with as much passion and desire to help others will come his way. He also hopes she’ll be fit and strong, because that matters to him, as well. He has plenty of female suitors but most of them can’t handle the strength of Tony’s commitment to his life’s “calling.” And if there’s one thing Tony is sure of, it’s that he can’t give up his calling or back down on his commitment to the children of Haiti for anyone.

When Tony walks into a room, he lights it up. Everyone notices him. He is warm, charming, funny, wears interesting clothes and people flock to him. They love to be in his presence. Tony loves other people and he also enjoys the attention he gets from other people. He’s not a narcissist by any means, he is completely concerned about others but he loves to be loved. He has found an outlet for this paradox of his nature by acting. He has tried many different occupations, but theatre allows him to explore his own personality and still connect with others. It allows him to adore his audience and his audience to adore him, without feeling guilt over having others admire him. It’s also a platform. Tony gets invited to speak a many events and it’s from the stage that he can talk about the plight of the children in Haiti while he simultaneously makes people laugh and feel good about themselves.

Off-Stage, Tony enjoys deep and meaningful conversations about the things that matter in life, eternal things, spiritual things, world-shaking things, religion, politics and scientific discoveries. If Tony finds a person interesting, he will make a special attempt to get to know that person better. He will ask questions to uncover the person’s dreams, ambitions and passions. Tony makes others feel wanted and appreciated. He makes them feel special. His twin brother, Timothy, has the same abilities, but Timothy is a con-artist who uses his gifts for reading people to swindle them out of money. Tony prefers the route of a performing missionary and wants to change the world in a good way.

For all his passion and warmth and intelligence, Tony doesn’t do small talk. He gets bored with surface conversation. However, he loves listening to others talk about what he considers “real” issues and he is excellent at providing direction. His friends have nicknamed him “Male Oprah.”

While Tony is just ONE of many possible manifestations of an ENFJ, keep in mind that all ENFJs have some things in common:

  1. ENFJs care how others feel.
  2. ENFJs are responsible for their own goals in life. No one else will lay out their future for them or tell them what they want. They KNOW what they want and what they have to do to get it.
  3. ENFJs are keenly aware of what looks good, what provides others with a good experience (or a bad one). Some may be into physical fitness of any variety, especially as they get older.
  4. ENFJs can be doggedly stubborn and determined. I have heard them called “contrary” on more than one occasion.
  5. ENFJs don’t give up on what they see as the right path for them. If a door closes, they will knock out a window.
  6. If you want to appeal to an ENFJ, appeal to their heart by telling them how you feel. They care more about what values you hold dear than about what you think.
  7. ENFJs are usually altruistic and sincere.

Meet Ella, an INTJ

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The cognitive preferences of INTJs are as follows:

Ni-introverted intuition in the hero position is perspective-shifting in that it is constantly at work on a subconscious level, sorting through information that comes in via the five senses or some unconscious means, giving the INFJ (INTJs, too), the ability to see things from many different angles and viewpoints at once. Ni is the NJs’ superpower, giving them insight into relationships, imagination, originality, ingenuity and visions of what not only could be but the road to take to get there.
Te-extroverted thinking in the parent position means that INTJs see things objectively and systematically. They have a structure and order and bring ideas back to standardized measurements or rationale. INTJs pay attention to the way things are structured or ordered. This is where their responsibility lies. They feel the responsibility to point out rationale and reasoning to others.
Fi-in the child position means that INTJs have a pure childlike awareness of their own values but may not be aware of the values of others. They are aware of their own feelings but may fail to understand or recognize the feelings of others. Sometimes this causes INTJs to be social unaware. 
Se-in the aspirational function, Se works on an axis with Ni, subconsciously feeding it. It also serves as a release valve for INTJs. It is not uncommon for INTJs in their 30s and beyond to take up Salsa, Martial Arts, weight lifting, gardening, cooking or some other hobby that allows them to engage in the moment. However, Se in this position can also cause the INTJ to develop performance anxiety as they desire to give others a good experience.
Meet Ella 

Ella is a biology professor; she works best alone.

She doesn’t like having to serve on university committees where people often end up going off-topic and accomplishing little. She had rather be in her lab, actually getting something done. She is careful planner and tends to do things in a systematic way. She is not a stickler for order, but she does need some order in her life. She needs people to be on time or at least call and let her know why they’re not. She needs to have at least a rough-outline of what to expect when going into a situation. Her lab is clean and spacious and when she’s in there alone she often listens to classical guitar music. She is a minimalist and doesn’t like “stuff.” However, the few things she does want are high quality.

When Ella was a child her family lived in an old farmhouse with a woodshed in the backyard. This shed became Ella’s “lab.” Ella spent long hours collecting insects in jars, labeling them and putting them on a shelf her father had built for her. She often did sketches of the insects and kept a journal on their behaviors.  She checked out a book on insects every time her class went to the school library. Sometimes, she developed notions about how the insects might behave if she put certain ones together, then she would do that and watch to see what happened.

Ella focuses on ideas and concepts. She is a big picture person and gets frustrated when having to work with too many mundane details. She once had a job as accountant but quit after a week. The boredom was killing her she said. There was no intellectual simulation, no invigorating conversations, no inspiration and no opportunity for her to create. Ella is very creative.

Constantly looking for the best way to do things, Ella has keen perception and can easily deduce a pattern or see a trend. She has a childlike adherence to her values and knows exactly what she values. However, she isn’t so keen on discerning the values and intentions of others. In fact, when her boyfriend (who is habitually late and loses track of time) doesn’t think to call and tell her that he’s running late, she begins to imagine all sorts of things. Maybe he just doesn’t like her anymore. Maybe he had a flat tired. Maybe he had an accident.  She is uncomfortable around strong displays of emotion and doesn’t really know how to respond or react to them. She has a calm demeanor most of the time. Intelligence, loyalty, dependability and competence matter to Ella and she respects those qualities in others.

Ella constantly absorbs her environment and things that she doesn’t even know she notices seem to get filed away in some hidden filing system and later, she mysteriously knows things without having a clue as to how she knows them.

When she was younger she was clumsy but now that she is older she has taken up Salsa dancing and is quite good at it. She never considered herself athletic before but this new hobby lets out a side to her that was unknown to her before.

There have been a few times in her life when she realized that she couldn’t see a best way out of a particular circumstance so she just lived in the moment. Once she spent an entire summer alone, studying insects of the Smokey Mountains. She just needed time to get away from people and clear her head.

Ella is quiet confidence in motion. She doesn’t care what others feel as much as she cares what they think. What are their ideas? She will take the best of those ideas and run with them to develop something tangible or to perfect a project she’s working on. Ella has a good sense of humor that most others don’t know about.

Ella’s cognitive preferences are those of an INTJ and while she isn’t an example of ALL INTJs, there are certain traits that all INTJs have in common:

  1. INTJs have a strong will.
  2. INTJs need time alone.
  3. INTJs are objective.
  4. INTJs tend to be rationale.
  5. INTJs see the big picture.
  6. INTJs finish what they start.
  7. INTJs are strategic in every thing they do.






Extraverted Sensing Preference Recaps

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SPs or extraverted sensors are people whose cognitive preferences causes them to naturally be more in the moment than the rest of us. They don’t have to try to be in the moment, they just are in the moment. They are in-tune with their physical environment and are more at home in it. They are all free-spirited and original.


Se-in the hero position guarantees that they are involved and immersed in the moment. They are aware of the experiences of others, what others are doing.

Ti-in the parent position means that ESTPs are analytical, thinking on their feet, in the moment. They’re practical and pragmatic. They care less about how things “should” be done and more about, “what works.”

Fe-in the child position means they have a pure awareness of the values of others and a childlike concern about the well-being and feelings of others.

Ni-in the aspirational position means that ESTPs are uncertain about their future and if their plans will work. In some ways it’s a self-sabotage button that turns them into procrastinators, quick to begin a project but uncertain about finishing. However, they can and usually do overcome this if those around them exhibit patience and faith in their abilities. They need freedom to chose their own future because they are uncertain of what they want.


Ti-in the hero position causes ISTPs to be logic at its finest. Every piece of data or information that comes to an ISTP is immediately weighted against an internal framework built upon what is “true.” It also means they do not care what others think unless others can prove their thoughts using indisputable evidence from someone that the ISTP respects.

Se-in the parent position means that ISTPs are responsible with their immediate physical environment. They are highly attuned to what’s going on around them at all times and because of the hero Si they literally excel, above all others, at thinking on their feet. The Ti-Se combo also makes both ISTPs and ESTPs extremely gifted with the mechanical and tactical.

Ni-in the child position means that ISTPs have a childlike clear picture of what they want in any given moment and they often have no clue what anyone else wants. It also means that they can foresee and react to what’s happening to them in any given situation.

Fe-in the aspiring position means that the ISTP cares about how others feel even if they are the ones that cause the bad feelings. They need to know that you value them because they doubt that anyone does.



Se-in the hero position means the ESFP is all about providing an experiment in the moment. They are aware of their physical environment and are usually, like all SPs, physically coordinated and appreciate beauty. They tend to be fantastic entertainers and are often (like the ISFP) considered physically attractive.

Fi-in the parent position means that the ESFP is aware of what they value and will be true to themselves. It also means that Fe is in the critic position and may make them critical of the values of others which might be different from their own.

Te-in the child position gives them a pure measure of control that others may find surprising. The ESFP is often intelligent, articulate and controlled in their speech.

Ni-in the aspirational position means that the ESFPs aspire to know the right path and may verbally give advice or wish to be seen as wise counselors. Ni in this position means that ESFPs may feel they have the answers to the problems of others.  This is the function  where their ego longs to be fed. ESFPs want to be told they are wise, because they doubt that they truly are.


Fi-in the hero function means that ISFPs are true to their own values and feelings.

Se-in the parent function means that ISFPs are physically co-ordinated, quick to catch on to mechanical, tactical or physical things and are often attuned to physical beauty, knowing how to adorn themselves. They have a kinetic intelligence as all SPs do.

Ni-in the child position means that the ISFPs have a childlike clear picture of what they want in any given moment and they often have no clue what anyone else wants. It also means that they can foresee and react to what’s happening to them in any given situation.

Te-in the aspirational function means that ISFPs long to grasp the standardized ways of doing things yet struggle to do so because Fi makes them fiercely staunch in their own values. They want to be more aware of reason and what people think. As they mature, this can become a reality, but for many it remains a longtime struggle.





Introverted Sensing Preferences Recap

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In an effort to ensure that I cover all of the basis, before I move into the Intuitive Types, I’d like to do a couple of posts just recapping or highlight the sensors. Today I highlight the SJs.

SJs are people with cognitive preferences that cause them to focus on such things as comfort, safety, dependability, tradition, structure and doing what they perceive to be “right” or the accepted way of doing things.

SJs are responsible for keeping family traditions alive, for keeping order in society and for maintaining stability. They are the anchors of the human race. SJs, the world truly NEEDS you!

Here are the SJ cognitive preferences:

ESTJ-are hard-working, responsible, efficient people who have a natural talent for overseeing.

Te-hero means that ESTJs are aware of the proper way of doing things, efficient and structured.

Si-parent means they are responsible, dependable, safety-focused and will ensure comfort or a personally pleasing sensory experience. They are collectors of data in some instances. For example, an ESTJ who is concerned with a health issue will collect loads of information on that issue.

Ne-in the child position means they have a witty cooky streak that shows up in childlike playfulness at times.

Fi-in the aspirational or inferior position means they know their values but may be unaware of the values of others, believing that what they value is universally what others should also value.

ISTJ-are careful, thorough, conscientious, careful and usually filled with knowledge. 

Si-hero means that ISTJs are well aware of what brings comfort and familiarity is comforting to them. It also means they are collectors of information, data and sometimes, “stuff.”

Te-parent means that ISTJs are responsible to do things the way they “should be done” and that they look to the experts in whatever field of interest they have. ISTJs always have a systematic way of doing things.

Fi-in the child position means that the ISTJ has a childlike pure awareness of what they believe and value. However, they may be completely unaware of societal norms and values.

Ne-in the aspiring position means that the ISTJ has an off-beat sense of humor and can be surprisingly witty at times and inventive.

ESFJ–they provide and ensure that the physical needs of others are met. They seek to please those around them and usually work hard and are altruistic. 

Fe-in the hero position means that ESFJs are keenly aware of what those around them value.

Si-in the parent positions means that ESFJs will seek to maintain comfort in social situations and in the family.

Ne-in the child position means that they have a pure desire to give others what they want.

Ti-in this position means that they are aware of what they think but not of what others think. It also means that they MUST be listened to.

ISFJ-kind-hearted, care-taking, loving, gentle individuals who need family structure and someone or some thing to take care of.

Si-in the hero position means that ISFJs recall the past, collect data and seek comfort.

Fe-in the parent position means that ISFJs are aware of what others value and desire to uphold those values. That’s why family image is so important to them.

Ti-in the child position means they have a pure, child-like ability to analyze a thing to its basic core.

Ne-in the aspiration position means that they anticipate what others are wanting or what their intentions are. It also means that they may have some uncanny insights (sometimes dead on accurate and sometimes just accusing) into what others are intending to do.




Meet Sarah, an ISTP

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ISTP’s have the following cognitive preferences:

Hero–Thinking introverted in the hero position–they are, above all, logical and analytical. This means Thinking extraverted is the nemesis and if you want an ISTP to listen to your ideas, you’d better back them up with indisputable facts. 
Parent–Sensing that is extraverted–their responsibility lies in the experiences of what’s going on around them. What is everybody doing? What is everybody experiencing in the immediate reality? This means that Introverted Sensing is the critic. 
Child–Feeling extraverted is their child and in its innocence, it cares how things affect others and how others feel. This means that Feeling Introverted is the trickster and the ISTP may not be aware of their own core values, ethics or morals at times. 
Aspiring–Intuition that is introverted anticipates the immediate future, like a fighter’s next move, but because it is in the inferior or apsiring position, it does not do as well with long-range planning.  This means that Intuition Extraverted is their demon function.

By day Sarah works at the county jail.

In the evenings she teaches martial arts and women’s self-defense classes. She thinks tactically. Her purse isn’t just a purse, it’s an ETA-lined military grade survival kit. She carries a pocket knife and a pistol in there along with her compact, lipstick, brush, checkbook, cellphone and credit card.

She scopes out a building the moment she enters, looking for places where shooters or muggers might attack. When she visits a home, she can’t stop seeing potential entry points for thieves, rapists and serial killers. She thinks on her feet and is constantly in protectant mode. Sarah has a natural-born ability to do things physically. She and her training partners are always thinking up new ways to stop would-be attackers and then they try them out on each other. Sarah has had her jaw broken, her rib broken and has been knocked out on more than one occasion.

She isn’t opposed to crude humor and her husband often reminds her that there are children present. However, she tends to be quiet much of the time, not because she’s shy but just because if she deems a conversation too stupid or pointless, she simply won’t engage in it. She really doesn’t care what other people think unless they can back it up with a mountain of relative research from people that she respects. She has a massive internal framework of information and understanding about the things she’s interested in and she applies it to the present situation.

Sarah’s husband is sometimes opposed to her extreme physical and analytical nature, but he knew when he married her that she was fiercely independent and that she was a tactician. On their fourth date, they had a flat and she was the one who changed it. She also told him to take all that crap off his key chain before he messed up his ignition switch.

Sarah isn’t the traditional motherly type by any means. She will gladly eat Thanksgiving dinner at her sister’s house but if the family counted on her, she’d order carry-out. She sees what needs to be done and she does it in the most efficient way possible.  Unlike her SJ sister, she forgets anniversaries and birthdays. She doesn’t mean to and if she is reminded then she will come through. She cares deeply about the well being of her family and will fight fiercely to protect them, at least physically. She has a pure instinct about her and can survive just about any situation. Sarah is a real life Mcgyver in a lot of ways. Steve McGarrett from Hawaii Five 0 is her absolute favorite television character. He reminds her of herself. She also likes Agent Mae from Agents of Shield.

Sarah doesn’t have many women friends because she doesn’t usually fit in with them. In her mind, high heels are made to be used as weapons. Hairspray can double as mace and face powder can be used to lift fingerprints.

However, she loves the auto parts store and visits the hardware store weekly. Sarah isn’t intentionally critical of other people but the truth is that she can literally think on her feet and anticipate an opponent’s next move. Sarah can think and move her way out of anything. However, long range planning is not really her thing and neither is having to back up, slow down or re-explain a concept. She sometimes thinks that people who can’t catch on to what she is showing them are slow or just plain stupid, no matter how many degrees they have or what they’re in.

Not only is she good at thinking on her feet, but there hasn’t been an engine built that she can’t take apart and put back together again. Sarah loves to work on vehicles and she loves to work with her hands. When she isn’t training, working out or at the jail, she’s in the back yard under a shade tree fixing someone’s vehicle.

Sarah’s cognitive preferences are those of an ISTP.

While Sara is not typical of ALL ISTPs, all ISTPs do have some things in common.

  1. ISTPs live in the moment.
  2. ISTPs are tacticians.
  3. ISTPs foresee physical challenges in the immediate future and react. That’s why they make awesome fighters and martial artists.
  4. ISTPs are mechanically and/or electronically inclined.
  5. ISTPs tend to be daredevils to some degree. They will try out the tactics that they come up with.
  6. ISTPs are not bound by tradition and almost always think outside the box.
  7. ISTPs don’t care what others think and will write you off as stupid if you waste their time on prattle. Ideas have to be backed up by real world evidence by people they respect in fields that they care about.


Meet Johnny, an ESTP

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Johnny loves crude humor, The Sons of Anarchy and hosting family and friends barbeques. He enjoys reality television shows that focus on fixing up old cars or remodeling dilapidated homes. He doesn’t have time for theoretical discussions unless he can use them in his real life.

Johnny is well-liked by many people. He runs a local garage and his friends stop regularly to shoot the breeze with him. He has been a champion in the county’s demolition derby for four years straight and so the “guys” respect his skill and ingenuity. He’s been known to weld parts together that don’t normally go together. He doesn’t care so much for the way things have always been done and considers some traditions to be just plain stupid. He puts things together in unique ways and is often proud of his accomplishments, posting pictures of his renovated cars on facebook where he also posts off-color jokes and sarcastic memes.

He will push the boundaries with his humor and remarks. When Johnny throws a party, he wants everything to be just right. He wants his guests to enjoy the food and have a great time. He may overspend in his quest to have people love the moment they’re in. This is his way of giving and helping. Johnny mans the grill. He is really great at starting projects and focusing on them in the moment.  If he doesn’t finish a project quickly, he may never return to it and deep inside he knows this. That’s why when something is really important to him or the people that he loves, he needs his tunnel vision to complete it.

John is blunt, bold and direct in his speech. He notices physical changes in his environment before almost everyone around him and is quick to point them out. He also notices when things need to be changed and doesn’t hesitate to change them. He has a vast network of contacts and social connections that he calls upon whenever he needs an expert in just about any field.

He doesn’t like to express his feelings in front of others and struggles with anger. His blunt honesty has cost him a few friendships but he reasons that they can’t handle the truth. He moves at his own pace and detests being rushed and he doesn’t like to backtrack, slow down or explain things when others are too slow to catch on. That’s because having to focus on a detail for a long time is frustrating to him. Johnny has been known to boldly go where no man has gone before on more than one occasion which didn’t end well for him and now, that he is older, he procrastinates because he can’t predict an outcome and doesn’t really know what it is that he wants the results to be. His friends and family say that he can be unstructured, always runs late or arrives early, ignoring other people’s time frames. They say that can’t see the forest for the trees sometimes.

Johnny does have an awareness of social values and wants very much to give others a good experience. He can be extremely unselfish and give unexpected gifts to those he cares about. Johnny values his independence and not being micromanaged. He is self-sufficient and expects the same from others.

John’s cognitive preferences are those of an ESTP. 

While every ESTP is different and John is unique, all ESTPs do have some things in common:

  1. ESTPs live in the moment.
  2. ESTPs care about the experiences of others.
  3. ESTPs are analytical and can think on their feet.
  4. ESTPs have a childlike desire to make people feel good.
  5. ESTPs are protective of their families and those that they value.
  6. ESTPs think outside the box.
  7. ESTPs are pragmatic, always looking for what works.












Meet Kimberly, an ESFP

woman eating on cooking pan
Photo by Juan Pablo Serrano Arenas on

Kimberly is a chef. She truly enjoys her work and tries every recipe personally before she serves it to her customers. She enjoys textile art as a hobby and has a poodle name Floopy.

She knows what she values and it is these personal values and interests that motivate her.

She detests long-term projects and likes to do things that bring immediate satisfaction to people, like good cooking, and putting together great outfits. She once worked as a school secretary but the stringent rules made her feel stressed. She likes a job with flexibility and being a chef gives her that and allows her room to be creative.

Kimberly is so much fun at parties and her friends are always inviting her. She is a fountain of jokes and entertainment and makes others feel good to be in her presence which makes her feel good, too. She wears bold clothing (and sometimes revealing) that many others could not get away with. She has a killer singing voice and can sing karaoke better than any of the friends. She is good at making plans but disdains strict rules. She wants the freedom to be herself and on her dating profile, she states that as a must. She is a master of selfies.

She is definitely a girl who sees the glass as half-full. She doesn’t like conflict and doesn’t like to be restricted by regulations. She has a creative, artistic streak, especially when it comes to practical things. She loves good food, good company and good times. Kids love her. Animals love her. She’s a fun, easy-going, out-going girl most of the time. Kimberly’s cognitive preferences are those of an ESFP.

***Kimberly is just one example of the ESFP blueprints. However ESFPs do have some basic things in common, regardless of the lives built upon those blueprints.

  1. ESFPs like to give tangible experiences to others.
  2. ESFPs are motivated by personal interests and know what their personal values are.
  3. ESFPs are more organized and smarter than they appear.
  4. ESFPs may change their minds and/or directions often.
  5. ESFPs are good at initiating or starting things but may struggle with completion.
  6. ESFPs have an uncanny ability to be in the moment and tend to be good at “physical” or mechanical things. For example, an ESFP might be a natural-born dancer or have a natural talent for musical and/or stage performances.
  7. ESFPs care what others think.


Meet Allie, an ESFJ

woman holding pink tulips
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Allie attends church nearly every Sunday.

She holds a Master’s Degree in Human Services and prides herself in caring for others. She likes to keep things moving forward and she never wants for friends. In fact, she has a whole posse that she takes shopping with her because she is afraid that she will buy something ugly and look stupid in front of her friends at work.

She hosts Thanksgiving and Christmas dinners for her family every year and her home looks like it should be featured on the front of a Southern Living magazine. She goes all out and keeps her Christmas decorations up to date and in vogue.

At work she is often the spokeswoman in meetings and is critical of anyone who is socially awkward, has bad hair, is too fat, or wears out-of-style clothing. She sometimes spends more than she intended to on clothing and often buys things only to later discover that she doesn’t even like them. In fact, she has closets filled with things with tags still on them. She doesn’t always know what she wants and so she buys things that are popular among people she respects and likes.

Allie puts in long hours and works as a volunteer for Relay for Life because she is a cancer survivor and she wants to help others survive, too. She cries during sad movies and is better at knowing what other people want than what she wants for herself. In fact, she feels happiest when she is making the people she loves happy. Her first marriage was bad as her husband was verbally and emotionally abusive toward her. Now, in her second marriage, she is extremely happy because her husband, an easy-going woodworker, is completely opposite of her previous partner. He is funny, quirky and kind to her, plus she always knows what he wants, he listens to her, doesn’t criticize her for having too much stuff and values her ideas and input and this makes her happy.

There is a woman at work who once devalued Allie and made her feel stupid. Allie wanted the woman gone, so she began highlighting the woman’s short-comings in front of others. Eventually, the woman was deemed lazy and incompetent by the administers at the center and she was fired. Allie received her job, which was a promotion for her. Allie rarely goes into her dark side but dismissing her idea as stupid made this woman Allie’s mortal enemy. Allie must be praised for her hard work. If she receives praise and recognition, she will sacrifice to the ends of the earth to make others feel happy.

Allie’s cognitive preferences are those of an ESFJ.

All ESFJs have these things in common:

  1. They honor tradition and the values of their circle.
  2. They want to do the “right thing.”
  3. They are past focused and compare the present to past experiences.
  4. They care about what you want.
  5. They must have someone listen to them.
  6. They like familiarity and comfort.
  7. They are thoughtful, generous and usually altruistic.

Meet Mark, an ESTJ

police motorcycle in middle of road
Photo by Jimmy Chan on

Note to my family: although I have a brother named Mark, this is NOT him. 

Mark is a jailer.

He is also objective, organized, punctual, practical and more than a little on the blunt side, but after all, he says he works with criminals, so why should he be all cuddles and rainbows?

His wife says he never turns it off and sometimes forgets that the kid on the bike across the street is not a hoodlum, just a kid on a bike. She sometimes thinks he is insensitive to her feelings and the feelings of their children. But then he goes and does something totally sacrificial to provide them with a nicer car or a better school. She knows that he shows his love in practical ways. He has been married to the same woman for twenty years and plans to be with her until they both die. He endured extreme poverty as a child, often going to school hungry and tired (from a lack of sleep due to his parents fighting in the next room) and the early death of his mother when he was eighteen. His father, an alcoholic, abandoned Mark and his three younger siblings.

However, through his fortitude and determination, he went to work at several part-time jobs and earned enough money to keep his siblings together and put them all through high school.

Mark does his best to follow proper protocol. He works out at the gym several times a week and eats healthy. He is fit and trim and an excellent dresser. He always looks sharp in his uniform and even in his lounge clothes.

Mark doesn’t throw things away. He washes them, organizes them and donates them to a facility for the elderly or to the children’s hospital where he knows his hard-earned purchases will be treated with respect and receive a new purpose.

He appreciates people who take pride in the order and cleanliness of their workspace, home and personal appearance.

He doesn’t like long theoretical discussions and wants you to get to the point when speaking to him. If you take too long to respond, he will consider you a “slow thinker.”

He once gave a bike that his son outgrew to a cousin’s child. The next time he went to visit, he saw the bike had been left out in the rain. He has decided not to give that cousin’s child anything else. Another time he gave a coffee pot to his niece. When he went to visit again, he noticed the coffee pot hadn’t been cleaned very well. He decided she wasn’t responsible enough to receive any more gifts from him. He sometimes hurts his wife’s feelings when she is getting dressed to go out because he will say, “That dress makes you look fat. You shouldn’t wear it.”

He disdains fat people and he worries that he might have Jewish ancestry because he read a document detailing all the diseases that Jews can inherit. He has been researching his ancestry feverishly ever since and is concerned because he found a great-great-uncle who died from throat cancer.

He enjoys taking random drives on the weekend along well-established routes and occasionally surprises his wife and kids with a weekend camping trip. Mark isn’t overly emotional and worries that there may be something wrong with his son because he cried at school when other kids accused him of lying. Mark worries that his daughter may be ADHD, even though the doctor said she wasn’t. He’s looked the symptoms up online and he is sure he knows more than the doctor because that doctor is too young to know much anyway.

Sometimes, he hires a babysitter and takes his wife out on the four-wheeler out for a spin, making a day of it and stopping at places that look nice and clean to eat. Mark does things at his own pace and doesn’t like people who slow him down by being late nor does he like to be rushed. Mark’s cognitive presences are those of an ESTJ.

***Mark is only ONE example of the ESTJ type. ESTJs can present themselves in many different ways and each will have their own unique lives and habits, but all ESTJs do have some things in common that are fundamental to the ESTJ cognitive preference.

  1. ESTJs are orderly, punctual, dependable, responsible and practical.
  2. ESTJs are objective and make decisions based on what seems practical. They may not consider your feelings at all when making a choice but will always consider what you think. They care about what you THINK.
  3. ESTJs are safety focused and take comfort responsibly. They don’t want others to make stupid mistakes because they don’t want to have to rescue them from the consequences later on, which is what often happens.
  4. ESTJs know what they value and assume that others value the same thing.
  5. ESTJs want you to think of them as good people. They show love through acts of service and/or gifts. That is why in the example above, Mark was upset by the bike being left in the rain. It was a devaluation of his values.
  6. ESTJs are resilient, hard-workers who want to do the things they have been taught are right.
  7. ESTJs are opinionated and at times, can be a bit elitist.

Meet Tom, an ISTJ

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Tom is an accountant.

He likes his job, because he always knows what is expected of him and he has a set way of accomplishing everything. He feels good when he has an itinerary to follow.

He gets to work every day at 7:05 a.m., exactly twenty-five minutes before he is required to be there. He always leaves home early in case of something unexpected, like a flat tire or icy roads. Every Monday he wears his red tie and every Thursday he wears his gray jacket.

He eats two sausages, one egg and two pieces of toast with a cup of coffee for breakfast every morning and he has done his entire adult life.

He always puts his left shoe on first. At lunch he either goes to the cafeteria across the street or to the fast food place two blocks away. He takes a break at 9 every day and goes to the break room and talks to his friend, Joe, for fifteen minutes. He enjoys talking about UFO sightings, comic books and superhero movies. His co-workers know him for his corny jokes and honest mannerism. Tom is practically incapable of deception or lies.

His boss is talking about retiring and Tom is apprehensive. He has seen the new guy but he is suspicious of him. He thinks this new guy is the type that will change things just to shake people up and that disturbs him. He questions the incoming boss’s intentions and worries that he might be like a pastor he once had who looked similar to him and had similar mannerisms. That pastor embarrassed Tom in front of the entire congregation, so Tom quit going to church. Tom does not like public displays of emotions, especially his own.

When at home, he likes to watch his favorite television shows, sometimes, he even watches reruns of the best episodes. Every night he calls his girlfriend around 7. He also likes a nightly bowl of popcorn and to read for about an hour before he goes to bed. Tom likes to keep things moving forward, doesn’t like sudden plan changes and needs to know what’s next on the agenda. Tom’s cognitive preferences are those of an ISTJ.

***Tom is just one example of the many faces an ISTJ may take. Although no two ISTJs are the same, they all have certain things in common.

  1. They are safety and comfort focused. They prefer the familiar over the changing and unexpected.
  2. They have a systematic way for doing everything and are responsible to do what they should do. They rely on structure and are responsible. If an ISTJ borrows something from you, they will return it in good condition and if you borrow something from them, they expect the same.
  3. They are collectors of information and may accumulate vast libraries on whatever subject they are interested in. They may also collect items, such as comic books, CDs, old records, magazines, etc. Being surrounded by the familiar brings them comfort.
  4. They have a childlike adherence to their personal values and may be unaware of the values of others. They may follow you to the bathroom door dispensing information about something that is important to them, believing that you are also excited about it.
  5. They have a hard time recovering from wrongs done to them and have a hard time understanding why people don’t just do what they say and keep their promises. They like life-long partners and as little change as possible.
  6. They will go outside their comfort zones for those that they love, but will likely complain the entire time they’re doing it.
  7. They fret and worry over the intentions of others.

Meet Kallie, the ISFJ

photo of woman teaching
Photo by nappy on

Kallie’s a kindergarten teacher.

She’s neat.

She’s organized.

She’s punctual.

She dresses conservatively, attractively and responsibly. Her classroom is filled with colorful totes, all labeled and periodically dusted. The totes contain things that she has used in past lessons and may use again in future ones.

She eats lunch with her coworkers and enjoys talking about her children, her husband, her church and her students. She has a shoe collection at home and loves cute shoes and secretly enjoys it when her co-workers comment on how much they like her shoes or her clothes or her hair. She has a quiet demeanor and a soft-spoken gentleness about her yet she will stand up for her family or her students in a heartbeat.

She loves Thanksgiving and Christmas and enjoys reliving special moments from her childhood and the childhood of her children.

Sometimes, she worries about her students at night and prays for them before she goes to sleep. She can be counted on to do things right, to do her job well and to keep accurate records. She wants to do the things that she was taught that she should do in order to be a good person.

She gets nervous when people start changing things without a real explanation as to why they’re changing.  Sudden changes make her uneasy and uncertainties make her feel overwhelmed and nervous. She is aware of how other people feel and of their values. She doesn’t want to hurt people’s feelings unless she has to, but if you mess with her loved ones, or fail to come through on your end of a deal (meaning that after she has done so much for you and not asked anything in return, she expects you to live according to her standards), she may go into panic mode and start talking fast, crying and accusing you of whatever she has imagined you’ve done. Her facebook posts consists of cute pictures of her children doing things, like playing with a pony or feeding the horse or in their adorable Halloween costumes, of her husband (whom she will often praise) and her dog. It’s important to her that she have a great family and that other people think she has a great family.  Other peoples’ feelings and perceptions matter to her, even if their thoughts or personal experiences don’t. She cares more about how you feel than what you think or what you’ve done. Don’t tell her what you think. Tell her how you “feel” and you will reach Kallie’s heart. She is the true embodiment of not caring what you know until she knows that you care.  Kallie’s cognitive preferences are those of an ISFJ.

If Kallie has a dark side it would be that she could become irrational and accuse someone of bad intentions. She could carry this to the extreme, becoming neurotic and lashing out verbally or by doing something out of character for her. She may hold covert contracts and collect on them as a means of manipulation if she feels her version of the ideal relationship or family is slipping. However, Kallie is a stable and mature ISFJ, who has a handle on her shadow functions most of the time.  She is witty, cute, nurturing and inventive. She prides herself in having common sense. Kallie is respected in her community, and even though she often feels alone, is widely liked.

***Keep in mind that the cognitive types are merely blueprints and Kallie is only one representation of millions of variations of the ISFJ type. However, there are certain “Core” elements that all ISFJs share in common. They are:

  1. All ISFJs are safety and comfort focused.
  2. They all compare the present to past similarities and are quick to spot discrepancies.
  3. They are responsible to uphold the values of those within their circle. They care deeply about tradition and time-honored values, about family and legacy. They worry about being good people and don’t want to hurt other people’s feelings (at least not normally.) However, on a negative note, they can care more about the image of a perfect family than they do about the actual people in the family.
  4. They are structured.
  5. They often provide subtext when communicating, leading up to their actual point, or they may simply give your information and let you derive your own “points” from it.
  6. They want to do the the right thing, play by the rules.
  7. They tend to be kind most of the time and aware of how they come across.

Meet the “Free Spirits” (SPs)

man riding white surfboard
Photo by Oliver Sjöström on

SPs do what works, pragmatic.  They deal in “what is” more often than in “what if.” They like to test the rules, push the boundaries, live in the moment and have an aptitude for mechanical, tactical or physical type things. They have a sensual bent and sometimes come across as daredevils. They don’t usually like restrictions, detailed itineraries and rules that impede their adventure and creativity. They are artists, craftsmen, technicians and tacticians, regardless of what their occupational title actually is.


Ego: Se, Ti, Fe, Ni


Si, Te, Fi, Ne



Ego: Se, Fi, Te, Ni


Si, Fe, Ti, Ne



Ego:  Ti, Se, Ni, Fe


Te, Si, Ne, Fi



Ego: Fi, Se, Ni, Te


Fe, Si, Ne, Ti



ESTPs in a word: PRAGMATIC. ESTPs are directive in their communication. They give orders but don’t enjoy taking them. They are great at starting things but lag behind when it comes to getting them finished. They move at their own pace and don’t appreciate being rushed. They take their time and do things their own way. They live in the here and now more often than not. They are pragmatic, wanting to do what works above what’s always been done. They like to give those around them a great and memorable experience. They need to be given freedom to make their own choices and the time in which to do them. Understanding which direction they really want to go in their great weakness and they need patience from others in regards to that weakness.  They are motivated by interested more often than external systems.

ESFPs in a word: ENTERTAINING. ESFPs are informative in their communication which means there is a lot of subtext. They want to inform you and leave the decision of what to do up to you, much in the same way that ISFJs and ESFJs do, except there is no “should” attached to the information you’re receiving. ESFPs are spontaneous and funny and fun-loving. They are creative and aware of “what is” more often than “what if.” Like all Artisans, they will test the rules, push the boundaries. They make decisions based more on their interests or personal motivations than they do on an accepted system. Like the ESTP, they need the freedom to choose.

ISTP in a word: SURVIVAL.ISTPs need to know that they are valued for their expertise in an area. If ISTP is a musician then he wants to be acknowledged for his incredible skill which he may have spent untold hours perfecting. He is in the moment, logical, analytical, concrete (what is) and relaxed. He is movement oriented and likes to keep things going. He doesn’t like to stall or piddle. He is the ultimate tactician and survivalist with uncanny mechanical and physical aptitude. ISTPs are direct in their communication, not using anymore words than necessary (the silent grunters). They sometimes lack patience with others who don’t learn as fast as they do and may label highly intelligent people as stupid if the other person doesn’t catch on to a concept as quickly as they do. They live in the moment, are extremely aware of their physical environment and are highly analytical.

ISFP in a word: FREE-SPIRITED. ISFPs go at their own pace, make decisions based on their own interests and wait for you to make the first move. They are pragmatic and you can bet they will do what they want to do when all is said and done. They are quietly stubborn and have a hard time getting their ideas across sometimes. However, they are usually excellent at mechanical and physical things, just as the ISTP is. They need to be valued for their input and not to be written off because they struggle to get it across to you. They are more intelligent than most people realize. They are often gifted with an aptitude for art and music and many of the world’s famous artists and musicians have been ISFPs. They may also struggle with anger outbursts and tend to live on the edge at times.

Meet the Shoulds

Continuing with the 16 Sets of Cognitive Blueprints

family having meal at the table
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SJs come in four basic blueprints. They are keepers of tradition, deal in “what has always been” more often than “what if”. They are more likely to adhere to a system most of the time (systematic) but occasionally can be pragmatic. They play by the rules and what to do what is lawful. They do what they SHOULD do and expect you to do the same. They tell lots of stories of the way things used to be and are very aware of their physical bodies. They are safety-focused and may talk a lot about their health. They NEED things to be planned and organized. An itinerary, color-coded binders, closet organizers, filing cabinets, clocks, calendars and sticky notes are their best friends.


Ego: Te, Si, Ne, Fi


Ti, Se, Ni, Fe


Ego: Si, Te, Fi, Ne


Se, Ti, Fe, Ni


Ego: Fe, Si, Ne, Ti


Fi, Se, Ni, Te


Ego: Si, Fe, Ti, Ne


Se, Fi, Te, Ni

ESTJs in a word: ORDER. They are orderly, objective, lawful, keepers of tradition, often blunt go-getters who start things and move at their own pace. They are directive when they speak more often than they are informative and even when they are informative, they sound directive. They are often seen as unyielding and “by-the-book” but there is far more to them than that. They need to know you appreciate their hard work and see them as compassionate people, because understanding other people’s values is their greatest area of struggle. Their decisions are often based on the “system” of which they are a part.

ISTJs  in a word: SAFE. ISTJs are safety-conscious keepers of tradition with a penchant for details and sometimes, conspiracy theories who like to see things get done (they may not be the ones doing them but they will dutifully and systematically remind the “doers” until the thing is accomplished.) They are orderly collectors of information and knowledge. They are systematic and direct in their communication. They appreciate being told what they should do and they like to have a precise order to do it in. ISTJs are inventive in practical ways and can come up with mechanical inventions that make life more comfortable and easier. They need to know your intentions and that you want to be with them, because feeling afraid of other people’s intentions and feeling unwanted are their greatest struggles.Their intuition works to  make them suspicious and causes them to imagine what others might be doing or intending to do.

ESFJs in a word: SUPPORTIVE. ESFJs are duty-conscious, self-sacrificing, caring, hard-working traditionalists who go the extra mile to help those in their circle of influence. They are informative in their speech, aware of what’s accepted in their culture and live by their “shoulds” doing what they “should” do. They need you to listen to their ideas and assure them that you find them useful and intelligent because they doubt their own intelligence and when you don’t listen to them you reinforce their doubts. They need to know that you value them enough to listen to their ideas. They make excellent community leaders and event organizers.

ISFJs in a word: PLANNING. ISFJs need to be safe and comfortable. They dislike the unfamiliar and being in situations where they don’t know the intentions of others or where there is an element of danger.  Like the ESFJ, they are informative in their speech. ISFJs are masters at dropping “hints” which they expect you to pick up on and act accordingly to what you “should” do. They are usually neat, tidy and organized. Trust an ISFJ to plan your family vacation and pack snacks for everyone. They may fix your hair or pick lent off your clothing. Tradition is everything to them; it provides them with the comfortable, predictable and familiar. They are all about what they “should” do and about feeling safe. ISFJs are behind-the-scenes kind of people and don’t enjoy being put in the public spotlight. This is often uncomfortable for them. They need to know your intentions. They make excellent managers and come up with wonderful inventions for use in their work environment and in their homes. Their intuition works to  make them suspicious and causes them to imagine what others might be doing or intending to do.



16 Types: Part III

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Below I give a brief overview of the four basic temperaments, according the categories in my previous post..

Then I follow with examples of people from each temperament category. Finally, I break the types down and give a very brief description of each. I put the negative possibilities in italics. I will return soon to post all of the types in more detail. Right now, I simply want to familiarize people who haven’t heard of these cognitive preferences before with them.

I am endeavoring to simplify to the point that anyone can understand, but an ISFJ friend did recently warn me, “Some people won’t understand it, no matter what you do, because some people can’t understand it.” Maybe she’s right. I don’t know. But, it’s not for a lack of trying on my part.

SJs have Sensing Introverted in their top four functions which makes them past-focused and comfort-seeking.  This means they may be apprehensive about changes and need a tether to the past to be comfortable going into the future. Stability and focus matter to them.

Conscientiousness George Washington, Martha Stewart, Billy Graham, Jerry Falwell, Oral Roberts,  Tom Clancy, Woodrow Wilson, Colin Powell, Harry Truman, Sam Walton, Apostle Paul

Funny Fiction Character: Monica from Friends

SPs have Sensing Extraverted in their top four functions which makes them concerned about and in-tune with their present physical environment and the experiences that are going on around them. Exploration, self-expression and independence matter to them.


Survivalism–Bruce Lee, Frank Zappa, Clint Eastwood, Jim Morrison, Janice Joplin, Jimmy Hendrix, Tom Cruise, Christian Bale, Orlando Bloom


Funny Fiction Character:

Joey and Rachel from Friends


NTs have either Thinking (Extraverted or Introverted) in their top four functions, so they will all either rely heavily upon reason or upon logic. They value independence, theories, experiments and exploration.


Innovation–Einstein, C.S. Lewis, Hawking, Benjamin Franklin, Ayn Rand, Tesla, DiVinci, Darwin, Carl Sagan, Napoleon


Funny Fiction Character: Brain, from Pinky and the Brain



NFs have Feeling (Extraverted or Introverted) in their top four functions which means that they all are either concerned with the values and directions of the human race at larger or with their own internal values and personal growth.





Existentialism–Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr., Tolkien, Agatha Christie, George Orwell, Van Gogh, William Blake, Tom Selleck, Hitler, Jesus



Funny Fiction Character:

Phoebe from Friends


ESTJ–Efficient, organized, strong, determined–blunt, stubborn, elitist, rude, intimidating

*aptitude for leading/government/law enforcement

ISTJ–conscientious, loyal, honest, dependable, knowledgable–fretful, suspicious, comfort-seeking, insecure, lazy, hopeless (lose all hope for future)

*aptitude for keeping records/science/law enforcement/research

ESFJ–dependable, organized, self-sacrificing, funny, warm, family-oriented–overbearing, guilting, manipulative, covert contract holders, socially destructive

*aptitude for nursing/social work/counseling/elementary education

ISFJ–kind, nurturing, family-oriented, innovative, dependable–neurotic, lonely, fretful, comfort-seeking, guilt-inducing, victims of abuse

*aptitude for nursing/ data tracking/elementary-education/some fields of science

ESTP–Practical, pragmatic, resourceful, analytical, mechanically inclined, trouble-shooter–rude, abusive, critical, harsh, stubborn, tunnel vision, short-sighted

*aptitude for foreman/construction/heavy machine operators/building contractors

ISTP–physically attuned, analytical, practical, tactical, mechanically inclined, quick to catch on, self-sufficient–short-sighted, harsh, critical, arrogant

*aptitude for machines/electronics/some fields of science/tactician

ESFP–fun, loving, inventive, creative, physically attuned, good-natured–selfish, undisciplined, disorganized, narcissistic, lazy

*aptitude for entertainment/partyplanning/cooking/ fashion/teaching in some settings

ISFP–creative, charming, talented, physical aptitude, mechanic aptitude, easy-going, adaptable–self-absorbed, undisciplined, anger issues, narcissistic 

*aptitude for music/art/woodworking/machines/anything physical and creative

ENTPs–open, charming, caring, witty, innovative, independent, self-sufficient, analytical, ingenious–succumb to Stockholm syndrome, narcissistic, overly nit-picky over how things are phrased, presented  etc., critical

*aptitude for research/applied and theoretical sciences/inventing/ poetry/comedy

INTPs–innovative, analytical, peaceful, open mentally–insecure, lazy, failure to launch, childish emotions.

*aptitude for computers/sciences/think tanks

ENTJs–enormous sense for business, dedicated, hard-working, smart, witty, determined–harsh, abusive, judgmental, cruel, unaware of how words and actions affect others, unrealistic demands of loyalty.

*aptitude for business of any kind/overseers/commanders/officers

INTJ–Focused, determined,  original, rational, independent, strategic, pragmatic, self-sufficient, observant–oblivious to other’s feelings, suspicious, unrealistic demands of loyalty. 

*aptitude for science/research/computers/medicine/anything that requires strategic planning

ENFJ–altruistic, caring, merciful, kind, see the “big picture,” organized, planned, enthusiastic, positive, unwavering, determined–unrealistic visions of the future (live in a dream world at times), master manipulators, con-artists

*aptitude for performing arts/public speaking/missionary work/teaching

INFJ–strategic, focused, analytical, observant, non-judgmental, creative, linguistic aptitude, generous, kind, highly productive, determined–unemotional, manipulative, cold, calculative, obsessive, physically destructive

*aptitude for languages/writing/art/sciences/medicine/research/teaching (especially in a university setting)


ENFP–fun, innovative, creative, open, entertaining–fickle, selfish, moody, overly dramatic

INFP–creative, unique, observant, loyal, kind, generous, detail-focused–hoarders, lonely, misunderstood, self-pity, depressive, 

*aptitude for literature, music, art, some sciences, editing

1.     Traditional

2.     Do what they “should” do, what is “right.”

3.     Past-focused

1.     Non-conforming

2.     Do what “works.”

3.     Present-focused

1.     Non-traditional

2.     Do what “works.”

3.     Future-focused.

1.     Idealistic

2.     Do what is “right.”

3.     Future-focused